Japanese Society and Culture


Well-Being Scale, Japanese culture, Gratitude and empathy, Curiosity and Challenge, Overcoming anxiety, Balance and harmony, Satisfaction with life, Calmness and acceptance.

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Background: Although multiple scales related to well-being have been developed mainly in Western countries, it is important to consider Japanese cultural and historical elements when considering the concept of well-being in Japan. This study attempted to develop an integrated scale that considers Japanese cultural elements and characteristics.

Methods: As a preliminary survey, several Western made well-being scales were evaluated and 2 scales had factor structures that were generally as expected. Therefore, including these 2 scales, a total of 54 items (40 new items that represent characteristics that are important to Japanese) were added as integrated scales in the main analysis. The data collected from 1,515 Japanese residents by the internet was analysed using exploratory factor analysis.

Results: After repeated analyses by excluding items with factor loading of .40 or less, the provisional scale was found to have 6 factors and 27 items. Reliability with α>0.77 was obtained for all factors.

Conclusions: The six factors are named “Gratitude and empathy”, “Curiosity and Challenge”, “Overcoming anxiety”, “Balance and harmony”, “Satisfaction with life” and “Calmness and acceptance”. Although the results suggested that the integrated provisional scale has an acceptable factor structure and sufficient reliability, further research is needed to improve validity of the scale.

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ShimaKiriu_integratedWB09302023.docx (353 kB)

Shimada-kiriu_Abstract.docx (14 kB)